Candy and the Polio Vaccine

October 12, 2009 at 6:20 pm 3 comments

Vaccine on a sugar cube

Unless you’re over 50, you probably don’t have much experience with polio. It’s a nasty viral infection, which can in bad cases cause paralysis of legs, arms, and in the worst cases, your whole body. Polio gave us the Iron Lung (for paralyzed victims who otherwise would die of asphyxiation) and the March of Dimes, which started out raising money for polio research.

A vaccine pretty much eliminated polio from the U.S. and most of the developed world in the 1950s. And candy is part of the story.

In the late 1950s, polio researcher Albert Sabin developed a live virus vaccine to protect against polio. The vaccine had to be taken by mouth. The problem was that it was bitter tasting. Adults might swallow it anyway, but the primary intended beneficiaries of the vaccination programs were children. The obvious solution: put it in candy.

As early as 1959, scientists and confectioners in the U.S.S.R. had collaborated to produce a candy that could deliver the live virus. We don’t know what the confection tasted like, but it must have tasted pretty good. Over 1.5 million Russian children were successfully immunized by eating the vaccine candy.

Here in the U.S., Sabin’s live oral vaccine was approved for general use in 1961. Unfortunately, the Russian candy never made it across the ocean; instead, through the 1960s, the oral vaccine was administered to millions of adults and children as a sugar cube. The vaccine was effective; poliomyelitis is virtually unknown in the U.S. today.

A 1968 article in the New York Times makes the polio vaccine program sound like a party. “Children Frolic and get ‘Candy’ Polio Vaccine” describes a festive event organized by the NYC Health Department at the George Washington Houses in upper Manhattan. With music, toys, balloons and free orange juice, public health officials hoped to draw in pre-schoolers who had not yet been vaccinated against polio. At the event, each child received sugar cube tinted lilac with two drops of the Sabin live oral polio vaccine. Some kids, loving candy, came back for a second piece.

Too bad every vaccine can’t be candy!

More: See my research on the role of candy in the 1916 polio epidemic in Articles: The Candy Prophylactic: Danger, Disease, and Children’s Candy around 1916

Sources: “Children Frolic and get ‘Candy’ Polio Vaccine” New York Times May 22, 1968; “Polio virus Put in Candy” Science News Letter June 27, 1959: 405; “Polio Vaccine Given in Candy, Soviet Says,” New York Times Nov. 26, 1959.

Entry filed under: Candies We Miss, Health, Heroes and Personalities, Medicine, WWII to 1960s. Tags: , , , , .

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3 Comments Add your own

  • 1. cybele  |  October 12, 2009 at 6:31 pm

    My doctor must have been particularly mean.

    I remember getting the polio vaccine drops, probably around 3rd grade – they tasted like bitter, metallic mushrooms.

    I think we got a lollipop at the end of the exam, though.

    Reply
    • 2. CandyProfessor  |  October 12, 2009 at 6:42 pm

      Drops, with nothing? I’ve never heard of that. They still use the oral vaccine in Africa, and the manufacturers recommendations are quite specific about putting in on a piece of bread, in juice, etc. Mean doctor, indeed! As for the lollipop, as far as I can tell the tradition of a lollipop at the doctor really takes off with polio vaccination. Candy is everywhere!

      Reply
  • 3. mudhooks  |  February 28, 2015 at 10:43 am

    I can still remember getting my Polio vaccine on a sugar cube, circa 1960. I remember the liquid being pink.

    Reply

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Candy: A Century of Panic and Pleasure

Welcome to Candy Professor

Candy in American Culture What is it about candy? Here you'll find the forgotten, the strange, the curious, the surprising. Our candy story, one post at a time.

(C) Samira Kawash

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